John Koslovsky “Schenkerizing Tristan, Past and Present”
Bryan J. Parkhurst “The Hegelian Schenker, The Un-Schenkerian Hegel, and How to Be a Dialectician about Music”
Nicholas Stoia “The Tour-of-Keys Model and the Prolongational Structure in Sonata-Form Movements by Haydn and Mozart”
David Beach “Schenker—Racism—Context”
Richard Beaudoin “After Ewell: Music Theory and ‘Monstrous Men’”
Jack Boss “Response to P. Ewell”
Charles Burkhart “Response to Philip Ewell”
Allen Cadwallader “A Response to Philip Ewell”
Suzannah Clark “Patterns of Exclusion in Schenkerian Theory and Analysis”
Nicholas Cook “Response to Philip Ewell”
Timothy L. Jackson “A Preliminary Response to Ewell”
Stephen Lett “De-Scripting Schenker, Scripting Music Theory”
Rich Pellegrin “Detail, Reduction, and Organicism: A Response to Philip Ewell”
Boyd Pomeroy “Schenker, Schenkerian Theory, Ideology, and Today’s Music Theory Curricula”
Christopher Segall “Prolongational Analysis without Beams and Slurs: A View from Russion Music Theory”
Stephen Slottow “An Initial Response to Philip Ewell”
Barry Wiener “Philip Ewell’s White Racial Frame”
Anonymous “An Anonymous Response to Philip Ewell”
Lee Rothfarb “Henryk Szenker, Galitzianer: The Making of a Man and a Nation”
Veijo Murtomäki and Timothy L. Jackson “‘Punctuation Form’ and Expressive Contents in the First Main Period of Selected G Minor Symphonies’s First Movements of the Classical Era—Kochian-Schenkerian Approaches”
Charles Burkhart “Laura: An Unusual Popular Song”
Nathan Fleshner “Schumann’s ‘Ich hab’ im Traum geweinet’: A Schenkerian and Freudian Perspective”
Edward Laufer "On Chopin's Second Ballade"
Timothy L. Jackson "Elucidations of Post-Tonal Free Composition"
David Beach "A Footnote to Oster's Observations on Sonata-Form Procedures: Four Mozart Studies"
Roger Kamien "Form, Melodic Configuration, and Chromaticism in Chopin's Prelude in Bb Minor, Op. 28, No. 16"
Julie Pedneault-Deslauriers and Don McLean "Mozart's Hermes Lieder: Crossed Perspectives on Voice-Leading, Form, and Text-Music Relationships"
Lauri Suurpää "From a Gentle Argument to a Hesitant Consensus: Mendelssohn's 'Duetto' Op. 38, No. 6"
Eytan Agmon "Chopin and Beethoven's 'Moonlight': The Lento con gran espressione (1830) and the Nocturne, Op. 27, No. 1"
Olli Väisälä "Two Six-Four Openings by Sibelius: 'Voice-Leading Technicalities' and 'Underlying Compositional Ideas'"
Charles Burkhart "A Note on Debussy's Beau Soir"
Graham Hunt "How Much is Enough?" Structural and Formal Ramifications of the Abbreviated Second A Section in Rondo Finales from Haydn to Brahms
Hiroko Nishida "Schenker's Fingerings in the Beethoven Erlduterungsausgaben"
Robert Gross "Post-Tonal Hierarchization in Wozzeck"
Michael Baker "Review: Lauri Suurpää's Death in Winterreise: Musico-Poetic Associations in Schubert's Song Cycle"
Peter H. Smith "Hierarchy, Interruption, and Interpretation of ABAʹ Forms"
Giorgio Sanguinetti "Diminution and Harmonic Counterpoint in Late-Eighteenth-Century Naples: Vincenzo Lavigna’s Studies with Fedele Fenaroli"
Daniel J. Arthurs "Irony and Illusion in the Second Movement of Beethoven’s Piano Sonata, Op. 10"
Jonathan Guez "You Hear What You Will, The Horns I Hear Them Still: Prolongation and Persistence in Act II Scene 1 of Tristan und Isolde"
Michael Berry "Review: Yosef Goldenberg, Prolongation of Seventh Chords in Tonal Music . 2 vols"
Matthew Arndt "Interruption and the Problem of Unity and Repetition"
Mark McFarland "Bill Evans and the Limits of Schenkerian Analysis"
Hiroko Nishida "Narrativity in Heinrich Schenker's Interpretations of Musical Works"
Ryan Taycher "Deceiving the Ear: Recontextualization, Key Association, and Auxiliary Cadence in Two Songs by Hugo Wolf"
L. Poundie Burstein "True or False: Re-Assessing the Voice-Leading Role of Haydn’s So-Called 'False Recapitulations'"
Jan Miyake "Multiple Themes and Musical Space in Sonata-Form Expositions"
Boyd Pomeroy "The Major Dominant in Minor-Mode Sonata Forms: Compositional Challenges, Complications, and Effects"
Hiu-Wah Au "The Referential Roles of G/F double sharp and A sharp/B flat in Johannes Brahms’s Variations on a Theme by Robert Schumann, Op. 9"
Lee Rothfarb "Halm's Counterpoint in Word and Deed"
Ian Bent "Schenker as Teacher: The Case of Gerhard Albersheim"
Marko Deisinger "Heinrich Schenker as Reflected in His Diaries of 1918: Living Conditions and World View in a Time of Political and Social Upheaval"
William Drabkin "Hans Weisse in Correspondence with Schenker and His Circle"
Christoph Hust "'How desolating to have to say that he is and will be the premier conductor of our time!’: Heinrich Schenker and Wilhelm Furtwängler"
Timothy L. Jackson "Punctus contra punctus—a Counterpoint of Schenkerian and Weissian Analysis: Hans Weisse’s Counterpoint Studies with Heinrich Schenker"
John Koslovsky "'Primäre Klangformen, Linearität, oder Auskomponierung?': The Analysis of Medieval Polyphony and the Critique of Musicology in the Early Work of Felix Salzer"
Boyd Pomeroy "The Parallel Sonata Form: Schubert’s Symphonies of 1815-16 to Rachmaninov"
David Beach "Motivic Enlargement and Phrase Expansion: Illustrations from Two Works by Mozart"
Matthew Bribitzer-Stull "Echoes of Alberich’s Anguish: Compositional Unity, Analytic Plurality, and Wagner’s Das Rheingold"
Mart Humal "Counterpoint and Musical Form"
Allen Gimbel "Faith in Death: Meaning and Motive in Mahler’s Fifth Symphony"
Olli Väisälä "Analyzing Bach - and How Bach Actually Wrote, A Review-essay on David Beach’s Aspects of Unity in J.S. Bach's Partitas and Suites"
David Beach A Response to Olli Väisälä’s Review-essay
David Gagné A Review of Peter H. Smith’s Expressive Forms in Brahms’s Instrumental Music: Structure and Meaning in His Werther Quartet
Yosef Goldenberg "Schenkerian Voice-Leading and Neo-Riemannian Operations: Analytical Integration without Theoretical Reconciliation"
The basic neo-Riemannian R and L transformations are explained by Schenkerian theory as 5-6 or 6-5 motion, but the explanations do not conform. Schenkerian and Riemannian analytical tools cannot be truly reconciled, but they might help to illuminate together certain musical pieces. Often the Riemannian transformations work on one hierarchical level, either nested within the Schenkerian context or providing a framework for the Schenkerian passage. Passages from Schumann, Purcell, Chopin, Smetana, Wagner and Beethoven illustrate these points.
Steven Rings "Perspectives on Tonality and Transformation in Schubert’s Impromptu in Eb, op. 90, no. 2 (D. 899)"
This article explores the gulf between harmonic transformation theory and more traditional tonal concepts, including Schenkerian ones, tracing the divide’s theoretical origins and its impact in the analysis of Schubertian harmony. These methodological issues are given concrete form in three analytical passes over Schubert’s Eb Impromptu, op. 90, no. 2 (D. 899): one Schenkerian, one neo-Riemannian, and a third that integrates parsimonious and tonal-functional harmonic operations in a single product-network.
Elizabeth Sayrs "Motivic Networks and Fundamental Structure"
Taking two of Hugo Wolf’s Lieder—”Wir haben beide lange Zeit geschwiegen,” and “Nun wandre, Maria”—as representative of his motivically saturated works, this article examines the relationships between transformational motivic networks, Schenkerian motives, and Schenkerian structure. Three issues are explored: 1) how motivic “match” can arise from membership in the same transformation network (rather than from the transformations of a literal ordered string of pitch classes); 2) how motivic transformations usually associated with 20th-century pcset manipulations can take place in a tonal context; and 3) how motivic repetition, rather than acting as a surface or middleground phenomenon, can be reflected at the deepest structural levels.
Graham G. Hunt "When Chromaticism and Diatonicism Collide: A Fusion of Neo-Riemannian and Tonal Analysis Applied to Wagner’s Motives"
Despite a recent abundance of literature and interest in “neo-Riemannian” analytical methods, the application of these methods remains in its nascent stages. Neo-Riemannian analysis is particularly well-suited for the analysis of passages lacking traditional tonal syntax, such as the leitmotives in the music dramas of Richard Wagner. Using the approaches of Gauldin and Lewin as points of departure and using neo-Riemannian operations defined by Cohn, Douthett and Steinbach, Callender and others, this paper fuses a neo-Riemannian analysis of two chromatic motives from Der Ring des Nibelungen (the “Resentment” and “Power of Ring” motives) with a contextualization of the motives’ interaction with their surrounding middlegrounds. The evolution of the motives throughout the cycle is considered alongside their changing interaction with their relatively diatonic surroundings. Particular emphasis is given to the motives’ treatment in Alberich’s Curse in Scene 4 of Das Rheingold and Hagen’s watch from Act I, Scene 2 of Götterdämmerung. The fresh approach taken in this paper provides new insight into Wagner’s technique of motivic manipulation and his negotiation of diatonicism and chromaticism. It provokes the possibility of further analyses of this kind, in which a fusion of transformational analysis and Schenkerian analysis can be applied to music where the worlds of minimal voice-leading and diatonicism likewise coexist.
Evan Jones "Lowinsky’s Scarlet Letter: Contrapuntal and Transformational Perspectives on Lasso’s “Carmina Chromatico”"
Edward Lowinsky’s description of the Prologue to Orlando di Lasso’s Prophetiae Sibyllarum as an example of “triadic atonality” has prompted numerous investigations of the Prologue from bases in Schenkerian theory, modal theory, function theory, and tuning theory. The present study revisits this remarkable piece and the issue of its supposed atonality, invoking two newer models of musical structure in triadic textures. Although neo-Riemannian theory has seldom been applied to the music of the sixteenth century, it serves to illuminate both small-scale harmonic motives and large-scale trajectories in this piece effectively. Further, the property of pervasive fluency, which involves the juxtaposition of coextensive passing or neighboring lines extending between points of relative stability, offers a contrapuntal description of the effect of “being passing” at local and global levels. Both approaches reveal something of the Prologue’s constructive principles and illustrate its orientation toward and around a tonal center (on the cylindrical Tonnetz and on the diatonic lattice, respectively) in different ways.
Review by Mark Anson-Cartwright: Matthew Brown, Explaining Tonality: Schenkerian Theory and Beyond
Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press, 2005
In the preface to Explaining Tonality, Matthew Brown expresses his intention to present “a convincing argument to show why we should accept Schenker’s concepts as necessary and sufficient for explaining functional tonality” (xvi)—an argument that, in his words, “no one has ever offered.” This is an ambitious and original attempt not only to demonstrate the epistemological foundations of Schenker’s theory, but also to relate the claims of that theory to recent findings in related fields such as music cognition. Though “largely written from scratch” (xviii), the book draws on various articles and unpublished papers by Brown; it is the culmination of more than twenty years of research. Although Explaining Tonality is not likely to revolutionize the field, it may prompt some Schenkerians to reexamine—perhaps even to change—some of their assumptions.
David Carson Berry "Victor Vaughn Lytle and the Early Proselytism of Schenkerian Ideas in the U.S."
Victor Vaughn Lytle (1884-1969) was among the earliest American-born Schenker disciples. He studied with Hans Weisse in Vienna, ca. 1928-30, and wrote of his plans to introduce Schenkerian concepts into an American conservatory (Oberlin) at a time that would have pre-dated Weisse's own endeavors at New York's Mannes School. Lytle's 1931 essay, “Music Composition of the Present,” published in The American Organist, offers what may be the earliest English-language explication of several key Schenkerian concepts: tonicalization, Auskomponierung, prolongation, Urlinie, and Ursatz. In this article, I assess Lytle and his work, beginning with what is known about his personal connection with Schenker and the nature of his studies, and then progressing to an evaluation of the ideas presented in his essay. Also considered is the extent to which the article adopted both its rhetorical stance and its theoretical response directly from Schenker's own writings.
Timothy Cutler "Heinrich Schenker's Analytical Conception of Orchestration"
Paul Henry Lang, the American musicologist and long-time editor of The Musical Quarterly, wrote an editorial that begins as a review of and comparison between two recent publications, Tovey's Beethoven and Adele T. Katz's Challenge to Musical Tradition. Lang starts his essay by positing two distinct groups of musicologists-esthetes (represented by Tovey) and theoreticians (represented by Katz). In order to make the maximum contrast between the two groups, Lang abandons Katz and her monograph and instead turns to Schenker himself. With Katz placed aside, Lang's editorial is promptly transformed into an anti-Schenker tirade. In Lang's opinion, Tovey's writing is everything that Schenker's is not-lucid, humble, open minded, and free of polemical criticism. Meanwhile, Lang takes Schenker to task for attacking people who discuss the intangible aspects of music. Lang concludes that art criticism is a deeper thing than science.
Usually when one allows the theories of Schenker to sink in further, more appreciable discoveries are possible: The multi directional interaction of structural levels becomes evident; a contrapuntal approach to complicated modulating passages makes it easier to comprehend tonal order beyond a mere listing of key areas; form becomes something greater than a series of predetermined shapes that are "filled in" by the music. These are but a few of the things that one can learn through the Schenkerian approach to musical analysis. Regarding orchestration, one finds that Schenker's apparent neglect of non-pitch related matters is a false impression. Eradicating this fallacy is the main goal of this article.
Philip Adrian Ewell "Skryabin’s Dominant: The Evolution of a Harmonic Style"
Much has been written about Skryabin the atonal or post-tonal composer.It seems, however, that a simple evaluation of his compositions as modified tonal entities has been overlooked.This article examines Skryabin ‘s music in terms of the dominant harmony and its ever-changing form.By showing that there is a continuous evolution of the dominant from his early to his late music, the author posits that the difference between early and late Skryabin is, in fact, not as great as is often thought.He analyzes six piano miniatures to elucidate his argument: Op. 11/1 Prelude; Op. 42/2 Etude; Op. 42/6 Etude; Op. 57/1 Desire; Op. 63/1 Mask; and Op. 74/1 Prelude.
Roger Kamien "Quasi-Auxiliary Cadences Beginning on a Root-Position Tonic Chord: Some Preliminary Observations"
Auxiliary cadences are important compositional means of creating suspense, tension, and momentum in tonal music. They postpone arrival points, delay resolutions and the fulfillment of expectations. An auxiliary cadence can be defined as an incomplete bass arpeggiation (Bassbrechung) that begins with a I6 or a non-tonic chord such as V, VI, IV, III, and II. Such beginnings shift the emphasis of tonal arrival to the concluding I of the auxiliary cadence. Auxiliary cadences often appear in the context of a modulation, and help lead smoothly from one tonal degree to another. The initial I6 of such an example anticipates the tonal goal, which is reached only with the final chord of the auxiliary cadence.
This study demonstrates that in the context of a modulation, cadences beginning with a root-position local tonic chord (such as I in the dominant) can function similarly to auxiliary cadences as defined by Schenker; this variant, which I refer to as a "quasi-auxiliary cadence." Though in root position, the initial chord of the quasi-auxiliary cadence in question does not convey the effect of a strong tonal arrival in the dominant. When quasi-auxiliary cadences appear in the context of a modulation, they contribute to the gradual establishment of the new key.
Stephen Slottow "Analytic Process in Schenkerian Pedagogy: An Introspective Exercise"
There is little in published Schenkerian literature focused directly on analytic process--that either addresses the question "how does one go about analyzing a piece of music?" or that details the actual procedures and insights that led to any particular analysis. The emphasis is overwhelmingly on the result--the completed analysis itself. Yet the process of teaching analysis requires that students be given some sort of procedure, some series of actions. This paper represents a step towards a more process-oriented approach. It first surveys existing Schenkerian writings on analytical process, then juxtaposes their advice with a case study of the author's analysis of Bach's E minor Prelude from Well-Tempered Clavier, Book I (up to the Presto), and finally draws some pedagogical conclusions.
David Stern "Mozart's Adagio in B minor, KV 540"
In their later years, Mozart and Beethoven composed music so advanced that it transcended the style of the day. From a technical standpoint, their late works bring an already masterful technique to an even greater height, while at the same time producing some of their highest inspirations. In Mozart's day the remarkable complexities of some of his late works were at times regarded as being too erudite for the average listener. The Adagio in B minor, KV 540 is a prime example of this type of intensely felt, learned composition. It is a stand-alone movement, in an unusual key for Mozart, and weighty enough to be written in the most serious slow tempo. These factors suggest that Mozart had something very special to say in this work, an idea that is quickly confirmed upon listening to it.
The Adagio's brooding atmosphere may have been an expression of Mozart's difficulties at this stage of his life, although, as is the case with Don Giovanni, he avoids ending in a tragic vein by softening the emotional quality of the music at the very end. This was a crucial part of Mozart's classical aesthetic. The Adagio's sense of tragedy is created by time-honored means, the use of dissonant harmonies (such as diminished seventh chords) and concentrated chromaticism. The chromaticism, however, is not entirely traditional, and in the development section is so advanced that it looks forward to the work of Schubert and Chopin.
Lauri Suurpää "The Undivided Ursatz and the Omission of the Tonic Stufe at the Beginning of the Recapitulation"
Heinrich Schenker’s definition of sonata form regards interruption occurring at the first level of the middleground as integral for a sonata-form movement.In his view the exposition and the development together encompass the first branch of the interrupted structure and the second branch spans the recapitulation.This paper examines three works whose structures diverge from this description of sonata form: the first movements of Haydn’s Symphony no. 95, Schumann’s Third Symphony op. 97, and Brahms’s String Quartet op. 51/1.The paper concentrates on the recapitulations.In all the works the recapitulations begin, conventionally, with the opening theme of the movement at the original pitch –class level.Nevertheless, it would seem that these thematic returns are not supported by a structural tonic.The paper argues that this avoidance of a structural tonic at the outset of the recapitulation leads in these works to an undivided background structure.
Review by Allen Gimbel: Robert Snarrenberg, Schenker’s Interpretive Practice
Cambridge University Press, 1997